Foolish remedies: Tobacco resuscitation kit

A few months ago, we asked for your best tips for curing a cold on Twitter. The answers were brilliantly illustrated by our very own Rob Bidder as part of our Curious Conversations. April Fools’ Day kicked off our Foolish Remedies series as Muriel Bailly explores other unusual cures for illnesses inspired by Henry Wellcome’s collection.

In yesterday’s blog on bloodletting I introduced the concept of the four humors. A theory put together by the ancient Greeks and Romans who considered that good health was maintained via the correct balance between our bodily fluids: blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile. It may seem hard to believe that a practice such as bloodletting survived until the 19th century based on this theory, but various other medical devices have been developed in an effort to address the balance of the four humors.

Resuscitation set, 1801-1850.

Resuscitation set, 1801-1850.

My personal favourite is the tobacco resuscitator kit (above) usually displayed in our Medicine Man gallery. In 18th century London, two physicians (Doctors William Hawes and Thom­as Cogan) were concerned at the number of people wrongly taken for dead and buried alive.

In 1774, they founded the “Society for the Recovery of Persons Apparently Drowned” known today as The Royal Hu­mane Society. Swimming was not a popular sport in Georgian London and, in 1773, 123 people died from drowning in London. Hawes and Cogan believed that if they had administered a quick and effective treatment, some of the victims would have been brought back to life. Since the theory of the four humors was still widely spread and commonly accepted at the time, they based their observations on it: drowned people have an excess of wet and cold in their humors so a rational way to cure them, 18th century style, was to quickly reestablish the balance by introducing warmth and administering stimulating vapors, such as tobacco, into the body.

A man recuperating in bed at a receiving-house of the Royal Humane Society, after resuscitation by W. Hawes from near drowning.

A man recuperating in bed at a receiving-house of the Royal Humane Society, after resuscitation by William Hawes from near drowning.

Traditional resuscitation kits, such as the one displayed in our Medicine Man gallery, contain the equipment necessary to inject into the lungs, stomach or rectum. Resuscitator kits were provided by the Royal Humane Society of London and placed at various points along the River Thames.

Muriel is a Visitor Experience Assistant at Wellcome Collection.

Blowing smoke

Wellcome Collection team at QI

Back row (l-r) David Mitchell, Jeremy Clarkson, Alan Davies. Front row (l-r) Wellcome Collection’s Sophia Austin, Valerie Brown and Poppy Bowers

It’s not just artworks like Bernal’s Picasso that go on the road. Sometimes even the humblest object from Medicine Man is called forward for its hour in the limelight. Valerie Brown recounts what happens when the BBC called with an unusual request…

In Visitor Services we like to accommodate the unusual and the unexpected, as well as encouraging exchanges with visitors that can range from the extraordinary to the quite interesting.

In the vein of ‘quite interesting’, some months back we received a request from the BBC asking if we could provide a tour of the permanent galleries on the theme of the letter H for an episode of QI with Stephen Fry.

Naturally, we decided that this task should fall to the only member of the VSA team whose name began with H, the lovely Honor Prysor Jones, who sadly has since moved on to other things. Amongst the items included in the tour were talismanic hands of Fatima, paintings depicting haemorrhages, and a variety of heads and healers. After much scratching of heads, the theme of ‘Health and Safety’ was alighted upon by the QI team and in due course a request was received for the loan of our wonderful tobacco resuscitation kit.

The resourceful Poppy Bowers from Public Programmes was detailed to ensure the health and safety of our precious artefact, monitor its condition, record its vital signs and generally note any indications of over excitement brought on by the outing. Together with Sophia from Communications and myself (currently researching the practice of tobacco resuscitation for a dissertation) we set off for the TV studios.

On arrival Poppy instructed Stephen Fry in the very careful handling techniques necessary for precious artefacts and we watched the rehearsals and recording, reflecting on how we would run our own version of QI. The tobacco resuscitator was then duly returned to its usual habitat in the ‘End of Life’ case in Medicine Man.

The episode can be seen on BBC next autumn, but if you would like a preview, please do come and visit Medicine Man!

Valerie Brown is a Visitor Services Assistant at Wellcome Collection.