Object of the Month: The Unknown X

Double focus X-ray tube. Science Museum / Wellcome Images.

Double focus X-ray tube. Science Museum / Wellcome Images.

When Wilhelm Röntgen made the first x-ray image of his wife’s hand, the world was astounded. William Birnie looks at a seemingly magical tool of medical vision whose dangers were not immediately apparent.

With the discovery of the x-ray, physicians were allowed their first non-invasive look inside the human body and, unsurprisingly, X-rays quickly proved to be extremely useful, as both a diagnostic and therapeutic tool.

In November 1895 the first X-ray was taken by Wilhelm Röntgen (1845-1923), in Würzburg, Germany, and it was of his wife’s hand. He called them X-rays ‘for the sake of brevity’. The discovery was a culmination of more than a century’s research on electrical discharges in evacuated vessels. There’s no doubt X-rays had been generated many times before their discovery as, in the 1880s, experiments with the cathode ray tubes of Sir William Crookes were very popular. Moreover, Crookes himself had been baffled as to why the photographic plates he stored near his cathode ray tubes kept repeatedly fogging up.

Röntgen used such tubes, covered in black paper, to study the fluorescence produced when cathode rays struck the glass wall of the tube. During one such experiment he noticed that when the discharge was passed through the tube, some crystals of barium platinocyanide spread on a piece of card nearby glowed luminously. In tracing the origin of the light back to the tube a great discovery was made.

Medical X-rays are produced by letting a stream of fast electrons come to a sudden stop at a metal plate. This double focus X-ray tube works by using an alternation current which accelerates electrons towards an aluminium plate, thus producing an X-ray at both ends of the tube. The rays are capable of penetrating some thickness of matter and the X-ray image is created due to different tissue absorption rates: calcium in bones absorbs X-rays most, therefore the bones look white, whereas fat and other tissues absorb less and look grey. Lungs look black on an X-ray image, as air absorbs the least.

Early test objects included the hands of physicians and technicians (with serious consequences later), and model skeleton hands with forearms, made from a frame with silver paper added to simulate the tissues and bones. Small animals such as frogs and snakes were also used.

Scientists all over the world today are closely involved with X-rays. This connection dates back to shortly after Röntgen’s discovery, which was exploited rapidly even 100 years ago. By May 1896 the first X-ray journal, Archives of Clinical Skiagraphy, was published in Great Britain (skiagram was the term used in 1896 for what we would now call a radiogram). In the same month the technique was first used on the battlefield during the Italian-Ethiopian campaign, with physicians able to locate bullets inside wounded soldiers.

The public’s imagination was understandably captured by the suggestion and potential of X-rays. It was incredible that these rays could photograph inside the body and find bullets in soldiers. Public reaction in 1896 was widespread and immediate with the headlines mostly positive: ‘Electrical Photography Through Solid Body’ (Electrical Engineer, New York) and ‘Searchlight of Photography’ (The Lancet). Not all headlines were quite so favourable concerning the new technology, with the London Pall Mall Gazette stating, ‘we are sick of the Röntgen rays… you can see other people’s bones with the naked eye, and also see through eight inches of solid wood. On the revolting indecency of this there is no need to dwell.’

The use of X-rays was one soaked up readily by those members of the public who attended new X-ray lectures. A small fee would be charged to those audience members who wished, and volunteered, to have their hands and purses X-rayed.

Radiography is the first and foremost use of X-rays. It is an extremely familiar one with a variety of applications. For instance, in addition to being used in medicine, the X-ray has been used to detect structural flaws in materials, by chocolate manufacturers to ensure the absence of any metallic particles, to detect pearls in oysters, for security checks on luggage, and to examine Egyptian mummies, plant specimens, and old oil paintings. More familiarly, in the 1920s a veterinary school had a piece of specially designed apparatus installed in order to aid their investigations of bone diseases in army horses.

The dangers of using X-rays were not fully understood initially, with the hands of physicians and technicians used as early test objects leading to dreadful results, from dermatitis to skin cancer from radiation ulcers. Yet there were early indications. In 1896, the Röntgen Society of London formed a committee on X-ray injuries, with a similar initiative following in America several years later. The biological effects were also noted by Thomas Edison and Dr. W. J. Morton, who both suffered from sore eyes after working with X-ray tubes for a number of hours. Although lead protective clothing was worn by some in 1910, it was not until 1921 that a national committee in Britain endorsed protection recommendations.

There was also another reason why safety was seen as being of utmost importance. The use of X-rays was no longer only in the hands of doctors and experts. The commercial applications were extremely wide and it made its appearance in factories and shops. An example of war-time application included the examination of foreign ammunition of unknown construction. This had been hazardous to say the least before the development of metal radiographs.

If Röntgen’s semi-accidental discovery had not taken place, modern medicine would have been deprived in an unimaginable way. A book entitled X-Rays, Past and Present, which was published in 1927 and aimed to give the general reader a history of X-rays, makes an interesting point in its closing pages by stating: ‘not the least important result of the development of X-rays has been that they have formed a common link between other branches of science that hitherto had drifted into something approaching independent existences.’ X-rays, with the subsequent examination into their effect on physiological tissue, allowed the concept of our bodies being nothing but special differentiations of electrical charges to become much more tangible and appreciated than it had ever been before.

William Birnie is a Visitor Services Assistant at Wellcome Collection. You can contact him at w.birnie@wellcome.ac.uk.

7 thoughts on “Object of the Month: The Unknown X

  1. Very interesting article! Something that I have taken for granted today but must have been truely incredible when first discovered. I’m very impressed by just how clear examples of these early x-rays were too.

  2. Fascinating stuff, William – especially about how Roengten came to discover x-rays, his wife’s hand in it and the speed at which it was applied into clinical use. For info, here’s the first x-ray movie also from 1896 and the remarkable chap who made it: http://tiny.cc/f328e

  3. It’s a mistake to think this tube is run with alternating current. It was run using an induction coil with only one cathode and the platinum target was connected to the anode by a coiled wire, still extant in other examples. There is a connection to the target terminal inside the base to an eyelet on the outside of the wooden base.

    Is there an eyelet for this connection on this tube? It may be on the far side where it can’t be seen or it may have been removed, in which case there should be a small hole where it was.

  4. Thank you for your comment Alastair. As far as I can see, there is no eyelet for a connection on this tube. The explanation in the text is based on my reading about this object, but I’m not an expert in how the X-ray works on a complex scientific basis. Are you able to elaborate further?

    • Will, I think I can see the eyelet in the wooden base on some of the pictures of this tube on your site. It looks like it may be broken with only half the eyelet remaining. This picture shows it in the wooden base. Look at the first turned groove from the bottom of the wooden base and you’ll see it –

      http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/indexplus/image/L0057033.html

      This design of tube features in the book ‘Development of the Ion X-Ray Tube’ by Paul Ronne and Arnold Nielsen, well worth seeking out if you have a copy in your library. I’ve also got some photos of another more complete example showing how the tube was originally wired. It also has the original label stuck to the bottom of the base saying the tube is used with an induction coil. I’ll mail you the photos.

  5. Sorry, that picture link didn’t work. This is the correct picture showing the eyelet that connected to the target through the wooden base –

  6. Thanks for the email Alastair. The pictures you sent showed the connection very cleary (the one if our gallery is lit darkly and I think the connection is facing away from the glass), and it is intriguing to see it connected up. Many thanks for the correction.

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